Figure 7 shows the phases of facial reconstruction

Figure 7 shows the phases of facial reconstruction

It appears teeth 13, 15, 16, 24, 27, 31, 36, 42, and 46 had been eliminated at some time before death because they have experienced time to heal over.

These forensic age estimation practices conclude that this person might be ranging from 25 and 48.1 years of age. But, after combining all outcomes and analysing their precision and credibility, the likelihood is that this person is between 32 and 43 years of age.

Facial reconstruction

During facial reconstruction, 16 osteometric points had been calculated and connected to the skull, then, facial muscle tissue, features, fat and epidermis had been made from wax to make a possible antemortem type of this specific- see figure 7. After conclusion, it had been clear that this person had been a male having a really prominent jaw and forehead which links to past conclusions.

C

B

the

Figure 7 shows the phases of facial reconstruction. A) shows the skull with osteometric points in position, B) shows the addition of some facial muscle tissue, eyeball and nose, and C) shows the ultimate, finished facial reconstruction.

regardless of this, as it is an creative interpretation finished with a number of untrained people with no soft muscle or portrait working alongside, this process is extremely subjective therefore not so dependable at recreating an individual’s morphological characteristics for recognition. Consequently, this may be enhanced making use of computerised 3D facial reconstruction.

DNA profiling

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), a very reproducible DNA profiling method, had been completed to determine the typical D1S80 adjustable nucleotide tandem perform in this individual’s DNA sample and in comparison to those of 7 missing people. But, lack of any bands in this individual’s DNA sample, shown in figure 10, stops matching to known genotypes. This may be because of bad primer specificity or synthesis or insufficient, defective DNA within the test (McPherson, Quirke & Taylor, 1992).

Figure 10 shows the outcomes from 2% agarose gel electrophoresis for the PCR items. Lane 1 and 12 – 100bp ladder; 2- water control; 3- DNA sample A; 4- DNA sample B; 5- DNA sample C; 6- this individuals DNA sample; 7- DNA sample D; 8- DNA sample E; 9- DNA sample F;   10- DNA sample G; 11- water.

consequently, to locate a match, AFLP ought to be duplicated ensuring there clearly was sufficient, unfragmented DNA along side a suitable, high specificity primer. Primer dimers at the end of lane 9 implies the primer concentration had been excessive, consequently, to prevent allelic dropout that might assume homozygosity, reduced levels ought to be utilized whenever saying.

AFLP requires good quality and volume of DNA to avoid allelic dropout, but, it is most likely that this may not be accomplished with this DNA test. Consequently, DNA-17 might provide greater results since it calls for less DNA because of improved sensitiveness and discrimination between pages (Crown Prosecution provider, 2019).

Conclusion

After analysing all results, one could estimate it was a European male aged between 32 and 43 who had been 174cm high, managing acromegaly. The most likely reason for death is co-morbidity connected with acromegaly progression. Regrettably, these conclusions may not be verified through DNA fingerprinting which decreases validation and dependability, consequently, further analysis to verify this individual’s identification could consist of more dependable methods involving molecular biology and bone tissue chemistry.

Recommendations

  • Albanese, J., (2003).  A Metric Method for Intercourse Determination utilizing the Hipbone and also the Femur. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 48(2), 2001378. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs2001378.
  • Bass, W., (1978). Individual osteology. Columbia, Mo., Missouri Archaeological Community, 196-208.
  • Ebony, T., (1978). Intimate dimorphism within the tooth-crown diameters for the deciduous teeth. United states Journal of Bodily Anthropology. 48(1), 77-82. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330480111.
  • Brooks, S. and Suchey, J., (1990). Skeletal age dedication in line with the os pubis: an evaluation for the Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks techniques. Individual Evolution. 5(3), 227-238. Available from: doi:10.1007/bf02437238.
  • Carr, L., (1962). Eruption ages of permanent teeth. Australian Dental Journal. 7(5), 367-373. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.1962.tb04884.x.
  • Chapman, I., (2017). Gigantism and Acromegaly – Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders – MSD handbook customer variation. [Online]. 2017. MSD Handbook Customer Variation. Available from: https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-gb/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/pituitary-gland-disorders/gigantism-and-acromegaly [Accessed: 27 April 2019].
  • Church, MS., (1995). Determination of Race through the Skeleton through Forensic Anthropological techniques. Forensic Science Review. 7(1), 1-39
  • Crown Prosecution Provider., (2019). DNA-17 Profiling. [Online]. 2019. Crown Prosecution Provider. Available from: https://www.cps.gov.uk/legal-guidance/dna-17-profiling [Accessed: 5 Might 2019].
  • Ferembach, D., (1980). Suggestions for age and intercourse diagnoses of skeletons. Journal of Human Evolution. 9(7), 517-549. Available from: doi:10.1016/0047-2484(80)90061-5.
  • Giles, E. and Elliot, O., (1963). Intercourse dedication by discriminant function analysis of crania. United states Journal of Bodily Anthropology. 21(1), 53-68. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330210108
  • Giles, E., (1970). Discriminant function sexing for the peoples skeleton. Personal Identification in Mass Disasters. In Stewart TD (ed.)99-107.
  • Krogman, W., (1962). The peoples skeleton in forensic medication. United states Journal of Orthodontics. 49(6), 474. Available from: doi:10.1016/0002-9416(63)90175-1.
  • McPherson, M., Quirke, P. & Taylor, G., (1992). PCR: a practical approach. Oxford, IRL.
  • Meindl, R. and Lovejoy, C., (1985). Ectocranial suture closing: A revised way of the dedication of skeletal age at death in line with the lateral-anterior sutures. United states Journal of Bodily Anthropology. 68(1), 57-66. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330680106.
  • Miles, A., (1963). Dentition within the Estimation of Age. Journal of Dental Analysis. 42(1), 255-263. Available from: doi:10.1177/00220345630420012701
  • Molleson, T and Cox, M., (1993). The Spitalfields Venture, Vol. 2: The Anthropology. The Middling Type, Analysis Report 86. Council for British Archaeology: York.
  • NIDDK., (2012). Acromegaly | NIDDK. [online] National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Offered at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/acromegaly [Viewed 21 April 2019].
  • Phenice, T., (1969). A newly developed artistic way of sexing the os pubis. United states Journal of Bodily Anthropology. 30(2), 297-301. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330300214.
  • Rissech, C., Estabrook, G., Cunha, E. and Malgosa, A., (2006). Making use of the Acetabulum to calculate Age at loss of Adult Males*. Journal of Forensic Sciences.  51(2), 213-229. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00060.x
  • Scheuer, L. & Ebony, S., (2004). The juvenile skeleton. London, Elsevier Academic Press.
  • Sutherland, L. and Suchey, J., (1991) utilization of the Ventral Arc in Pubic Intercourse Determination. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 36(2), 13051J. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs13051j.
  • Todd, T., (1921). Age alterations in the pubic bone tissue. United states Journal of Bodily Anthropology. 4(1), 1-70. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330040102
  • Trotter, M., (1970). Estimation of stature from intact long limb bones, in Stewart, T.D. (ed.), Personal Identification in Mass Disasters: National Museum of Natural History, Washington, 71-83.

essay about biology undergrad research experience

Appendices

Appendix A

Feature

dimension (mm)

Cranial size

187.22

Cranial breadth

111.47

Basion-bregma height

138.67

Bizygomatic breadth

131.39

Basion prosthion size

121.63

Nasion-prosthion line

68.21

Maxillo-alveolar breadth

67.25

Height for the processus mastoideus

36.67

These dimensions had been then inputted to the formula below to find out intercourse through the skull.

Discriminant function formula (Giles & Elliot, 1963):

(Cranial length*3.107) + (Cranial breadth*-4.643) + (Basion-bregma height*5.786) + (bizygomatic breadth*14.821) + (Basion prosthion length*1.000) + (Nasion-prosthion line*2.714) + (Maxillo-alveolar breadth*-5.179) + (Height regarding the processus mastoideus*6.071)

If outcome is bigger than 2676.39, the patient is male, if smaller compared to 2676.39, the patient is feminine.

Appendix B

Feature

dimension (mm)

Hipbone height (A)

212

Iliac breadth (B)

161

Pubis length (C)

71.675

Ischium length (D)

88.41

Femur head diameter (E)

45.45

Epicondylar breadth of femur (F)

75.26

There dimensions where then inputted to the formula below Albanese’s (2003) to find out intercourse through the femur and pelvis.

Likelihood M/F=1(1+e–Z)

Model 1, Z = -61.5345 + (0.595*A) – (0.5192*B) – (1.1104*D) + (1.1696*E) + (0.5893*F)

Model 2, Z = -40.5313 + (0.2572*A) – (0.9852*C) + (0.7303*E) + (0.3177*F)

Model 3, Z = -30.359 + (0.4323*A) – (0.2217*B) – (0.7404*C) + (0.3412*D)

If P is more than 0.5, the patient is male, if P is significantly less than 0.5, the patient is feminine.

Appendix C

listing of corresponding states and many years for every for the 7 acetabulum variables Rissech’s (2006)

  1. Acetabular groove
    • State 1 – predicted age: 41.6
  2. Acetabular rim shape
    • State 3 – predicted age: 45.9
  3. Acetabular rim porosity
    • State 2 – predicted age: 39
  4. Apex task
    • State 1 – predicted age: 38.2
  5. task in the external side of the fossa that is acetabular 2 – predicted age: 32.3
  6. task for the acetabular fossa
    • State 3 – predicted age: 48.1
  7. Porosities for the acetabular fossa Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp  

but, cranial suture closing is recognized as unreliable and inaccurate since it often under‐ages older grownups and over‐ages sub-adults (Molleson and Cox 1993). Furthermore, this individual’s acromegaly caused exorbitant outgrowth of bone tissue across the sutures, possibly impacting their closing and, hence, impacting age dedication. Because of this, a far more reliable way of aging the skull involves evaluating dentition.

Teeth would be the minimum destructible area of the human body, making them exceptional for age estimation. No deciduous dentition and proof of enamel 8 alveolar procedures indicate this person is at minimum 18 years of age (Carr, 1962). Dental use analysis provides more accurate age dedication compared to those earlier mentioned since it examines enamel which may not be remodelled. a commonly utilized method involves analysing of mandibular molar wear (Miles 1963), nevertheless, as shown in figure 5 and 6, exorbitant ante- and postmortem loss of tooth means just two mandibular molars can be found, preventing any legitimate age estimation.

 

Figure 5, photographs showing mandibular (A) and maxillary (B) dentition. 1) identifies the websites of postmortem loss of tooth, 2) shows antemortem loss of tooth, 3) shows alveolar processes of molar 3 and 4) shows regions of decay.

Figure 6, utilizing the University of Sheffield dental chart, programs which teeth can be found, that have been removed and any fractures seen. It appears teeth 13, 15, 16, 24, 27, 31, 36, 42, and 46 had been eliminated at some time before death because they have experienced time to heal over.

These forensic age estimation practices conclude that this person might be ranging from 25 and 48.1 years of age. But, after combining all outcomes and analysing their precision and credibility, the likelihood is that this person is between 32 and 43 years of age.

Facial reconstruction

During facial reconstruction, 16 osteometric points had been calculated and connected to the skull, then, facial muscle tissue, features, fat and epidermis had been made from wax to make a possible antemortem type of this specific- see figure 7. After conclusion, it had been clear that this person had been a male having a really prominent jaw and forehead which links to past conclusions.

C

B

the

Figure 7 shows the phases of facial reconstruction. A) shows the skull with osteometric points in position, B) shows the addition of some facial muscle tissue, eyeball and nose, and C) shows the ultimate, finished facial reconstruction.

regardless of this, as it is an creative interpretation finished with a number of untrained people with no soft muscle or portrait working alongside, this process is extremely subjective therefore not so dependable at recreating an individual’s morphological characteristics for recognition. Consequently, this may be enhanced making use of computerised 3D facial reconstruction.

DNA profiling

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), a very reproducible DNA profiling method, had been completed to determine the typical D1S80 adjustable nucleotide tandem perform in this individual’s DNA sample and in comparison to those of 7 missing people. But, lack of any bands in this individual’s DNA sample, shown in figure 10, stops matching to known genotypes. This may be because of bad primer specificity or synthesis or insufficient, defective DNA within the test (McPherson, Quirke & Taylor, 1992).

Figure 10 shows the outcomes from 2% agarose gel electrophoresis for the PCR items. Lane 1 and 12 – 100bp ladder; 2- water control; 3- DNA sample A; 4- DNA sample B; 5- DNA sample C; 6- this individuals DNA sample; 7- DNA sample D; 8- DNA sample E; 9- DNA sample F;   10- DNA sample G; 11- water.

consequently, to locate a match, AFLP ought to be duplicated ensuring there clearly was sufficient, unfragmented DNA along side a suitable, high specificity primer. Primer dimers at the end of lane 9 implies the primer concentration had been excessive, consequently, to prevent allelic dropout that might assume homozygosity, reduced levels ought to be utilized whenever saying.

AFLP requires good quality and volume of DNA to avoid allelic dropout, but, it is most likely that this may not be accomplished with this DNA test. Consequently, DNA-17 might provide greater results since it calls for less DNA because of improved sensitiveness and discrimination between pages (Crown Prosecution provider, 2019).

Conclusion

After analysing all results, one could estimate it was a European male aged between 32 and 43 who had been 174cm high, managing acromegaly. The most likely reason for death is co-morbidity connected with acromegaly progression. Regrettably, these conclusions may not be verified through DNA fingerprinting which decreases validation and dependability, consequently, further analysis to verify this individual’s identification could consist of more dependable methods involving molecular biology and bone tissue chemistry.

Recommendations

  • Albanese, J., (2003).  A Metric Method for Intercourse Determination utilizing the Hipbone and also the Femur. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 48(2), 2001378. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs2001378.
  • Bass, W., (1978). Individual osteology. Columbia, Mo., Missouri Archaeological Community, 196-208.
  • Ebony, T., (1978). Intimate dimorphism within the tooth-crown diameters for the deciduous teeth. United states Journal of Bodily Anthropology. 48(1), 77-82. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330480111.
  • Brooks, S. and Suchey, J., (1990). Skeletal age dedication in line with the os pubis: an evaluation for the Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks techniques. Individual Evolution. 5(3), 227-238. Available from: doi:10.1007/bf02437238.
  • Carr, L., (1962). Eruption ages of permanent teeth. Australian Dental Journal. 7(5), 367-373. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.1962.tb04884.x.
  • Chapman, I., (2017). Gigantism and Acromegaly – Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders – MSD handbook customer variation. [Online]. 2017. MSD Handbook Customer Variation. Available from: https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-gb/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/pituitary-gland-disorders/gigantism-and-acromegaly [Accessed: 27 April 2019].
  • Church, MS., (1995). Determination of Race through the Skeleton through Forensic Anthropological techniques. Forensic Science Review. 7(1), 1-39
  • Crown Prosecution Provider., (2019). DNA-17 Profiling. [Online]. 2019. Crown Prosecution Provider. Available from: https://www.cps.gov.uk/legal-guidance/dna-17-profiling [Accessed: 5 Might 2019].
  • Ferembach, D., (1980). Suggestions for age and intercourse diagnoses of skeletons. Journal of Human Evolution. 9(7), 517-549. Available from: doi:10.1016/0047-2484(80)90061-5.
  • Giles, E. and Elliot, O., (1963). Intercourse dedication by discriminant function analysis of crania. United states Journal of Bodily Anthropology. 21(1), 53-68. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330210108
  • Giles, E., (1970). Discriminant function sexing for the peoples skeleton. Personal Identification in Mass Disasters. In Stewart TD (ed.)99-107.
  • Krogman, W., (1962). The peoples skeleton in forensic medication. United states Journal of Orthodontics. 49(6), 474. Available from: doi:10.1016/0002-9416(63)90175-1.
  • McPherson, M., Quirke, P. & Taylor, G., (1992). PCR: a practical approach. Oxford, IRL.
  • Meindl, R. and Lovejoy, C., (1985). Ectocranial suture closing: A revised way of the dedication of skeletal age at death in line with the lateral-anterior sutures. United states Journal of Bodily Anthropology. 68(1), 57-66. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330680106.
  • Miles, A., (1963). Dentition within the Estimation of Age. Journal of Dental Analysis. 42(1), 255-263. Available from: doi:10.1177/00220345630420012701
  • Molleson, T and Cox, M., (1993). The Spitalfields Venture, Vol. 2: The Anthropology. The Middling Type, Analysis Report 86. Council for British Archaeology: York.
  • NIDDK., (2012). Acromegaly | NIDDK. [online] National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. Offered at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/endocrine-diseases/acromegaly [Viewed 21 April 2019].
  • Phenice, T., (1969). A newly developed artistic way of sexing the os pubis. United states Journal of Bodily Anthropology. 30(2), 297-301. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330300214.
  • Rissech, C., Estabrook, G., Cunha, E. and Malgosa, A., (2006). Making use of the Acetabulum to calculate Age at loss of Adult Males*. Journal of Forensic Sciences.  51(2), 213-229. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00060.x
  • Scheuer, L. & Ebony, S., (2004). The juvenile skeleton. London, Elsevier Academic Press.
  • Sutherland, L. and Suchey, J., (1991) utilization of the Ventral Arc in Pubic Intercourse Determination. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 36(2), 13051J. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs13051j.
  • Todd, T., (1921). Age alterations in the pubic bone tissue. United states Journal of Bodily Anthropology. 4(1), 1-70. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330040102
  • Trotter, M., (1970). Estimation of stature from intact long limb bones, in Stewart, T.D. (ed.), Personal Identification in Mass Disasters: National Museum of Natural History, Washington, 71-83.

Appendices

Appendix A

Feature

dimension (mm)

Cranial size

187.22

Cranial breadth

111.47

Basion-bregma height

138.67

Bizygomatic breadth

131.39

Basion prosthion size

121.63

Nasion-prosthion line

68.21

Maxillo-alveolar breadth

67.25

Height for the processus mastoideus

36.67

These dimensions had been then inputted to the formula below to find out intercourse through the skull.

Discriminant function formula (Giles & Elliot, 1963):

(Cranial length*3.107) + (Cranial breadth*-4.643) + (Basion-bregma height*5.786) + (bizygomatic breadth*14.821) + (Basion prosthion length*1.000) + (Nasion-prosthion line*2.714) + (Maxillo-alveolar breadth*-5.179) + (Height regarding the processus mastoideus*6.071)

If outcome is bigger than 2676.39, the patient is male, if smaller compared to 2676.39, the patient is feminine.

Appendix B

Feature

dimension (mm)

Hipbone height (A)

212

Iliac breadth (B)

161

Pubis length (C)

71.675

Ischium length (D)

88.41

Femur head diameter (E)

45.45

Epicondylar breadth of femur (F)

75.26

There dimensions where then inputted to the formula below Albanese’s (2003) to find out intercourse through the femur and pelvis.

Likelihood M/F=1(1+e–Z)

Model 1, Z = -61.5345 + (0.595*A) – (0.5192*B) – (1.1104*D) + (1.1696*E) + (0.5893*F)

Model 2, Z = -40.5313 + (0.2572*A) – (0.9852*C) + (0.7303*E) + (0.3177*F)

Model 3, Z = -30.359 + (0.4323*A) – (0.2217*B) – (0.7404*C) + (0.3412*D)

If P is more than 0.5, the patient is male, if P is significantly less than 0.5, the patient is feminine.

Appendix C

listing of corresponding states and many years for every for the 7 acetabulum variables Rissech’s (2006)

  1. Acetabular groove
    • State 1 – predicted age: 41.6
  2. Acetabular rim shape
    • State 3 – predicted age: 45.9
  3. Acetabular rim porosity
    • State 2 – predicted age: 39
  4. Apex task
    • State 1 – predicted age: 38.2
  5. task in the external side of the fossa that is acetabular 2 – predicted age: 32.3
  6. task for the acetabular fossa
    • State 3 – predicted age: 48.1
  7. Porosities for the acetabular fossa Share this: Facebook Twitter Reddit LinkedIn WhatsApp  

Teeth would be the minimum destructible area of the human body, making them exceptional for age estimation. No deciduous dentition and proof of enamel 8 alveolar procedures indicate this person is at minimum 18 years of age (Carr, 1962). Dental use analysis provides more accurate age dedication compared to those earlier mentioned since it examines enamel which may not be remodelled. a commonly utilized method involves analysing of mandibular molar wear (Miles 1963), nevertheless, as shown in figure 5 and 6, exorbitant ante- and postmortem loss of tooth means just two mandibular molars can be found, preventing any legitimate age estimation.

 

Figure 5, photographs showing mandibular (A) and maxillary (B) dentition. 1) identifies the websites of postmortem loss of tooth, 2) shows antemortem loss of tooth, 3) shows alveolar processes of molar 3 and 4) shows regions of decay.

Figure 6, utilizing the University of Sheffield dental chart, programs which teeth can be found, that have been removed and any fractures seen. It appears teeth 13, 15, 16, 24, 27, 31, 36, 42, and 46 had been eliminated at some time before death because they have experienced time to heal over.

These forensic age estimation practices conclude that this person might be ranging from 25 and 48.1 years of age. But, after combining all outcomes and analysing their precision and credibility, the likelihood is that this person is between 32 and 43 years of age.

Facial reconstruction

During facial reconstruction, 16 osteometric points had been calculated and connected to the skull, then, facial muscle tissue, features, fat and epidermis had been made from wax to make a possible antemortem type of this specific- see figure 7. After conclusion, it had been clear that this person had been a male having a really prominent jaw and forehead which links to past conclusions.

C

B

the

Figure 7 shows the phases of facial reconstruction. A) shows the skull with osteometric points in position, B) shows the addition of some facial muscle tissue, eyeball and nose, and C) shows the ultimate, finished facial reconstruction.

regardless of this, as it is an creative interpretation finished with a number of untrained people with no soft muscle or portrait working alongside, this process is extremely subjective therefore not so dependable at recreating an individual’s morphological characteristics for recognition. Consequently, this may be enhanced making use of computerised 3D facial reconstruction.

DNA profiling

Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP), a very reproducible DNA profiling method, had been completed to determine the typical D1S80 adjustable nucleotide tandem perform in this individual’s DNA sample and in comparison to those of 7 missing people. But, lack of any bands in this individual’s DNA sample, shown in figure 10, stops matching to known genotypes. This may be because of bad primer specificity or synthesis or insufficient, defective DNA within the test (McPherson, Quirke & Taylor, 1992).

Figure 10 shows the outcomes from 2% agarose gel electrophoresis for the PCR items. Lane 1 and 12 – 100bp ladder; 2- water control; 3- DNA sample A; 4- DNA sample B; 5- DNA sample C; 6- this individuals DNA sample; 7- DNA sample D; 8- DNA sample E; 9- DNA sample F;   10- DNA sample G; 11- water.

consequently, to locate a match, AFLP ought to be duplicated ensuring there clearly was sufficient, unfragmented DNA along side a suitable, high specificity primer. Primer dimers at the end of lane 9 implies the primer concentration had been excessive, consequently, to prevent allelic dropout that might assume homozygosity, reduced levels ought to be utilized whenever saying.

AFLP requires good quality and volume of DNA to avoid allelic dropout, but, it is most likely that this may not be accomplished with this DNA test. Consequently, DNA-17 might provide greater results since it calls for less DNA because of improved sensitiveness and discrimination between pages (Crown Prosecution provider, 2019).

Conclusion

After analysing all results, one could estimate it was a European male aged between 32 and 43 who had been 174cm high, managing acromegaly. The most likely reason for death is co-morbidity connected with acromegaly progression. Regrettably, these conclusions may not be verified through DNA fingerprinting which decreases validation and dependability, consequently, further analysis to verify this individual’s identification could consist of more dependable methods involving molecular biology and bone tissue chemistry.

Recommendations

  • Albanese, J., (2003).  A Metric Method for Intercourse Determination utilizing the Hipbone and also the Femur. Journal of Forensic Sciences. 48(2), 2001378. Available from: doi:10.1520/jfs2001378.
  • Bass, W., (1978). Individual osteology. Columbia, Mo., Missouri Archaeological Community, 196-208.
  • Ebony, T., (1978). Intimate dimorphism within the tooth-crown diameters for the deciduous teeth. United states Journal of Bodily Anthropology. 48(1), 77-82. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330480111.
  • Brooks, S. and Suchey, J., (1990). Skeletal age dedication in line with the os pubis: an evaluation for the Acsádi-Nemeskéri and Suchey-Brooks techniques. Individual Evolution. 5(3), 227-238. Available from: doi:10.1007/bf02437238.
  • Carr, L., (1962). Eruption ages of permanent teeth. Australian Dental Journal. 7(5), 367-373. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1834-7819.1962.tb04884.x.
  • Chapman, I., (2017). Gigantism and Acromegaly – Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders – MSD handbook customer variation. [Online]. 2017. MSD Handbook Customer Variation. Available from: https://www.msdmanuals.com/en-gb/home/hormonal-and-metabolic-disorders/pituitary-gland-disorders/gigantism-and-acromegaly [Accessed: 27 April 2019].
  • Church, MS., (1995). Determination of Race through the Skeleton through Forensic Anthropological techniques. Forensic Science Review. 7(1), 1-39
  • Crown Prosecution Provider., (2019). DNA-17 Profiling. [Online]. 2019. Crown Prosecution Provider. Available from: https://www.cps.gov.uk/legal-guidance/dna-17-profiling [Accessed: 5 Might 2019].
  • Ferembach, D., (1980). Suggestions for age and intercourse diagnoses of skeletons. Journal of Human Evolution. 9(7), 517-549. Available from: doi:10.1016/0047-2484(80)90061-5.
  • Giles, E. and Elliot, O., (1963). Intercourse dedication by discriminant function analysis of crania. United states Journal of Bodily Anthropology. 21(1), 53-68. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330210108
  • Giles, E., (1970). Discriminant function sexing for the peoples skeleton. Personal Identification in Mass Disasters. In Stewart TD (ed.)99-107.
  • Krogman, W., (1962). The peoples skeleton in forensic medication. United states Journal of Orthodontics. 49(6), 474. Available from: doi:10.1016/0002-9416(63)90175-1.
  • McPherson, M., Quirke, P. & Taylor, G., (1992). PCR: a practical approach. Oxford, IRL.
  • Meindl, R. and Lovejoy, C., (1985). Ectocranial suture closing: A revised way of the dedication of skeletal age at death in line with the lateral-anterior sutures. United states Journal of Bodily Anthropology. 68(1), 57-66. Available from: doi:10.1002/ajpa.1330680106.
  • Miles, A., (1963). Dentition within the Estimation of Age. Journal of Dental Analysis. 42(1), 255-263. Available from: doi:10.1177/00220345630420012701
  • Molleson, T and Cox, M., (1993). The Spitalfields Venture, Vol. 2: The Anthropology. The Middling Type, Analysis Report 86. Council for British Archaeology: York.
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Appendices

Appendix A

Feature

dimension (mm)

Cranial size

187.22

Cranial breadth

111.47

Basion-bregma height

138.67

Bizygomatic breadth

131.39

Basion prosthion size

121.63

Nasion-prosthion line

68.21

Maxillo-alveolar breadth

67.25

Height for the processus mastoideus

36.67

These dimensions had been then inputted to the formula below to find out intercourse through the skull.

Discriminant function formula (Giles & Elliot, 1963):

(Cranial length*3.107) + (Cranial breadth*-4.643) + (Basion-bregma height*5.786) + (bizygomatic breadth*14.821) + (Basion prosthion length*1.000) + (Nasion-prosthion line*2.714) + (Maxillo-alveolar breadth*-5.179) + (Height regarding the processus mastoideus*6.071)

If outcome is bigger than 2676.39, the patient is male, if smaller compared to 2676.39, the patient is feminine.

Appendix B

Feature

dimension (mm)

Hipbone height (A)

212

Iliac breadth (B)

161

Pubis length (C)

71.675

Ischium length (D)

88.41

Femur head diameter (E)

45.45

Epicondylar breadth of femur (F)

75.26

There dimensions where then inputted to the formula below Albanese’s (2003) to find out intercourse through the femur and pelvis.

Likelihood M/F=1(1+e–Z)

Model 1, Z = -61.5345 + (0.595*A) – (0.5192*B) – (1.1104*D) + (1.1696*E) + (0.5893*F)

Model 2, Z = -40.5313 + (0.2572*A) – (0.9852*C) + (0.7303*E) + (0.3177*F)

Model 3, Z = -30.359 + (0.4323*A) – (0.2217*B) – (0.7404*C) + (0.3412*D)

If P is more than 0.5, the patient is male, if P is significantly less than 0.5, the patient is feminine.

Appendix C

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